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Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations

THE FULFILLMENT OF BIBLE PROPHECY IN ANCIENT ISRAEL’S EUROPEAN COLONIES

Modern science and archaeology in recent years have made tremendous progress in uncovering facts about our forgotten past. Not only has much of the Sacred Story been confirmed as fact, but many misconceptions about it have been proven untrue. A common misconception of yesteryear was the idea that although the Phoenicians traded and established colonies throughout the Mediterranean area, their Israelite neighbours never set foot on a boat or visited distant lands in ancient times. This idea persisted in spite of the fact that the word, ‘Hebrew’ itself is known to have signified "a colonist." Modern research has in fact now documented that ancient Semitic colonization in Europe, including Hebrew, was "enduring and significant," according to Dr. Cyrus H. Gordon, whose extensive research was highlighted throughout an entire issue of Biblical Archaeologist magazine (March, 1996). Having written over 20 books and learned over a dozen languages, Dr. Gordon is widely considered the leading American archaeologist and antiquarian of the twentieth century. His research has established that "no longer can we... consider Israel the vacuum-packed miracle from Sinai. Rather must we view Greek and Hebrew civilizations as parallel structures built upon the same East Mediterranean foundation" ' Homer & Bible,' page 72)

COLONIZATION BY THE BIBLICAL TRIBE OF DAN

Scholars have written for centuries about an ancient sea-faring people known to modern history books as the Tuatha de Danan, who founded civilizations in Greece, Spain, Britain, and Ireland. Scholars now know that the word, Tuath, means tribe. Dr. Gordon has also established that the suffix, AN was added to proper names in early times to signify a people or community. Thus, the name of these important early European colonists should be translated, the tribe of Dan. Was this the Biblical people, one of the twelve tribes of Israel? Indeed it was, according to Dr. Gordon, who relates, "A group of Sea People bore the name of Dan. The Bible tells how a segment of the seafaring (Judges 5:17) Danites [were part of] the tribal system of ancient Israel... The Danites were widespread. Cyprus was called Ia-Dnan ‘The Island of Dan(an).’ The same people were called Danuna, and under this name they appear as rulers of the Plain of Adana in Cilicia. Greek tradition has their eponymous ancestor, Danaos (Dan), migrating from the Nile delta to Greece... [Note that the Israelites did in fact emigrate from Egypt.] So important was this movement that the Greeks afterward called themselves Danaoi for centuries. Virgil also designated the Greeks as Danai. Bold scholars see the influence of the Danites in Irish folk lore... and in the name of Danmark (Denmark): the land of Dan... it is a mistake to accept the consensus and to imagine that Sea People with enough striking power... to change the course of history were unenterprising to the point of never sailing west of Gibraltar. (p. 108, 111, Before Columbus)

Dr. Gordon also points out Biblical evidence that "three of the [Israel] tribes are described as navigational: Zebulon, Dan and Asher (Genesis 49:13; Judges 5:17)," ibid., page 112. Based on the eminent Dr. Gordon’s research, we see that the ancient Hebrews not only sailed throughout the Mediterranean and Atlantic European coasts, but settled there and founded European civilization. Similarly, in the appendix to noted antiquarian G. Robert Gair’s "Geographical Environment and Race Movements," (1932) is the statement, "Migration...was responsible for the emigration of a great mass of Dan, Asher, Zebulon and Naphthali, who thus evaded the captivity under Assyria [762-676 B.C.], and turned nomad." Logically, Israelites evaded the Assyrian power to the east, by migrating westward. How do we verify where these Israel tribes went in ancient times? One way is by language study.
Early antiquarian scholar, Aylett Sammes, published his extensive research in 1676 in a work entitled, " The Antiquities Of Ancient Britain Derived From The Phoenicians." He pointed out (p. 58) that the Danites were also known in British history as "Damnonii," but that "the transposition is very easy and usual, and hides not at all the original, Dan." The Danites settled especially in south western Britain’s "Phoenician" tin districts, he says, adding that in this area many rivers, cities, and hills have names compounded with the tribal name, "Dan."

HEBREW-PHOENICIAN WORD ORIGINS

Many words and customs in early Britain show their Hebrew-Phoenician origin. Aylett Sammes gives (p. 64), for instance, the Phoenician word, "Rheda," meaning a chariot, as the source of the Celtic words, "Rhediad," a course, "Rheder," to run, and "Redeesa," a race. "Essedum" was a Gaulish and British word for a wagon, and corresponded with the Semitic "Dassedan, signifying the same thing." "Pen" was the Celtic word for a high and steep hill, which came from the Phoenician, "Pinna." The Celtic, "Bro," or "Boro," meaning a region or country, corresponded with the Phoenician "Baro." Numerous other examples are given by Sammes to show that the Phoenician influence in the settlement of Europe was very significant.

Modern scholar Cyrus Gordon further relates that historians often use the word, Phoenician, in its "wider sense" of Semitic peoples in general, including the Hebrews.. Although labelled "Phoenician" or "Syrian," we believe the evidence indicates that ancient Israel deserves credit for much of that which has been attributed to her neighbours.
Chapter three of Aylett Sammes’ study provides evidence that much of the coastland of Europe and the Mediterranean was settled by Hebrew-Phoenician speaking people. Here are a few of the place-names given by Sammes with their Hebrew-Phoenician root meanings:
Europe, Greek "Europa", received its name from the Phoenician, Ur-appa, signifying "a country of white complexions."
ASIA, or"Asi" in the Phoenician language signifieth the country between or in the middle." Evidently, Asia Minor (modern Turkey) was considered the land between Europe and the Mid-East.

HEBREW OR PHOENICIAN?
Although Professor Sammes gave these and many other examples of European place names indicating a Phoenician origin, it is important to note that the Hebrews and Phoenicians spoke the same language, with only minor differences. The Phoenicians, in fact, were Semitic distant relatives of the Hebrews, tracing their origin back to ancient Chaldea, the home of the patriarch Abraham. Nevertheless, we have good reason for suspecting that much of the so-called "Phoenician" trade and colonization was in reality Israelite.
Early 19th century noted antiquarian scholar, Sir William Betham, studied the Celtic origins of Europe, and his studies of early Italy were published in a two-volume work, "Etruria Celtica." Betham reproduced ancient coins from the kingdom of Utruria, in Italy, known as the Etruscan civilization. Interestingly, several of the Utrurian coins discovered were minted in honour of their deity, which was none other than Yahweh, God of the Hebrews!

"A human head in profile, proceeding from a shell, under it, the word, HAT, in the later Etruscan character... The word [also] appears written TAH... it is written both from right to left, and vice versa. The word, TA in the Celtic, is the auxiliary verb am, is, also existence, being, i.e. the self-existent being, God. O’Reilly renders it Jehovah [or Yahweh]... I find in the MS. Dictionary of the late William Haliday, and that of James MacGauran, the same meaning is given.” (vol. ii, page 135) Betham continues, "No. 2 is a human foot, cut off at the ankle, under it the word TAH, emblematic of the subjection of all things to the Supreme being." (ibid, vol. ii, pages 135-136)
"The word... TAH, which appears on some of the Etruscan coins... is the first person present of the auxiliary verb TA, ‘I am.’ It is remarkable that this name God gave to himself from the burning bush, I AM THAT I AM; and again -- ‘Thus shall thou say unto the children of Israel I AM has sent me unto you.’ -- ‘This is my name forever.’ (Exodus 3:14-15) " (ibid., vol. ii, page 33)
Therefore, as Sir William Betham points out, these coins represent worship of Yahweh, the Biblical "I AM," the God of Israel; as such, the early colonists who founded the Etruscan civilization in Italy could only have been Israelites! These were not Phoenicians, the worshippers of "Baal." Note particularly the virtual identity of the ancient Hebrew, British Celtic, and early Etruscan worship of the True God. It is no accident that the Celtic "TA," Etruscan "TAH," and the similar Hebrew, "YAH," all have identical meanings: the "Self-Existent," or "Ever-Living," and the "I AM," showing their obvious connection. Our study, "The Old Testament Roots Of Early European Mythology," shows the amazing similarity of their religious beliefs and customs.

HEBREW CONNECTIONS WITH EUROPE
Much evidence exists of ancient Israel in Europe. Our tract, "Ancient Israel in Spain And Britain," presents information about Hebrew colonization of Spain in the time of Solomon, whose "ships of Tarshish" (or Tartessus, another ancient name for Spain) are mentioned in the Bible. These traditions must have been strong, for the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (vol. I, p. 316) informs us, “John Sadler, a student of Oriental Literature, published in 1649 his Rights of the Kingdom, in which he endeavoured to show...that the English are the descendants of Israelites. He explained the name “Britain” as being derived from the Phoenician Berat Anac...He was evidently influenced by the tradition that in the time of Solomon, Phoenician traders, accompanied by Hebrews, reached as far as England and bartered their wares for the tin obtained from the mines of Cornwall. England was therefore known to the Israelites and they may have sought a refuge there after the fall of their kingdom [by the Assyrians, 762-676 B.C.]” Were a significant number of these early European colonists Hebrews? In ancient times, Israel was a nation several times larger and more populous than Phoenicia, as can be easily seen on Bible maps. It would seem obvious that the few small Phoenician city-states could never by themselves have settled all of the coastlands of Europe.

PROPHECY FULFILLED IN ISRAEL’S EUROPEAN COLONIES
Here are a few key promises of Scripture which were given by God to Israel, not to the Phoenicians. Whose descendants fulfilled them?
Israel was to become "a multitude of nations," Genesis 48:19; "a company of nations," Genesis 35:11 Where are these nations today, comprised of Israel’s descendants, as foreordained in the unconditional Abrahamic covenant?
Israel was to move to a new home-land outside of Palestine. This prophecy, given in about 1042 B.C., states, "Moreover, I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime." (II Samuel. 7:10)
History and Scripture clearly indicate a migration of Israelites north and west from Palestine. Isaiah 11:14 declares, "they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west..." Israel was warned to flee the Mesopotamian power, Babylon, an obvious hint that many of them moved in the opposite direction -- toward Europe! (Zechariah. 2:6-7)
Israel was to become a tremendous number of descendants, "as the sand on the sea shore." (Genesis. 32:12; Jer. 33:22; Hosea. 1:10), and "as the stars of heaven for multitude,"

(Genesis. 26:4; Exodus. 32:13). Later Scripture affirms that was indeed taking place:

"God hath enlarged you as the sand on the sea shore.." (Deut. 1:10) The Bible indicates a population of six million Israelites in ancient times before the Assyrian captivity.
Europe was left virtually empty in ancient times, prepared for the great number of Israelites to be sent there in God’s Providence. "When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance; when He separated the Sons of Adam, He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel." (Deut. 32:8)
Israel was to expand in the seas: "Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great waters, and thy footsteps are not known." (Psalm 77:19) "I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers." (Psalm 89:25) "Ask of me, and I will give thee of the heathen for thy inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." (Psa. 2:8) "He shall have dominion from sea to sea..." (Psalm 72:8) "His seed shall be in many waters" (Num. 24:7)

How wonderfully have these promises of sea migration and colonization been fulfilled!
Abraham’s descendants were to "spread abroad" to the ends of the earth. (Gen. 2814) Israel had already settled colonies in the isles of the west when Jeremiah wrote this in circa 600 B.C.: "Hear the word of the Lord, O ye nations and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him and keep him, as a shepherd does his flock." (Jer. 31:10) True to prophecy, Israel was gathered to the great shepherd, Jesus Christ, through faith, and the Israel nations became known as Christendom, or ‘Christ’s Kingdom on earth.’ "Sing...His praise from the end of the earth..." (Isaiah 42:10) And they do!

 

THE HEBREW - CELTIC CONNECTION
In the eighth century, B.C, the Assyrian Empire was at its peak, and its armies threatened the nations on the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, including Israel. The Assyrians were a brutal, fearsome people, the most terrible, perhaps, in all the earth's history. Conquered lands were literally plundered of everything of value - even people, who were taken to slavery in foreign lands. The wall murals of the Assyrians, some of which now bedeck the British Museum in London, depict scenes of horrible savagery and torture.
Famed archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard, rediscovered and unearthed the ancient Assyrian cities, and graphically described the scenes on the wall murals he found.

(Discoveries In The Ruins of Assyria And Babylon p. 456)
Inhabitants of Palestine in those days were well aware that Assyria would only too soon conduct a similar brutal warfare against the eastern shore of the Mediterranean.

Would not large numbers of Israelites migrate westward, by land and sea, to find safety for themselves and their families outside of the Assyrian sphere of influence?
Historical evidence indicates that did indeed happen. The authoritative Dictionary of Christ & The Gospels relates, 'LARGE NUMBERS OF ISRAELITES HAD BEEN CARRIED AWAY CAPTIVE BY THE ASSYRIANS AND BABYLONIANS ... BUT A MUCH LARGER DISPERSION WAS DUE TO VOLUNTARY EMIGRATION.'(Vol. 1, p.692) Yes, more Israelites emigrated, migrated voluntarily out of Palestine, than even the large numbers of those taken away in the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. As it became clear that invasion and conquest by Assyria was imminent, Hebrews and Phoenicians emmigrated westward to distant lands by the many hundreds of thousands, forming the foundation of European civilization.
These historical facts have been known for centuries, and a plethora of books by leading historians has documented 'the Phoenician origin' of Western civilization. Historians have given the Phoenicians most of the credit for this emigration from Palestine to Europe, although the Hebrews were more numerous, and were Divinely promised greatly increased numbers. Perhaps the answer to the confusion is that the Hebrew language is a Phoenician dialect, and the two are virtually identical. But as we will see, a great multitude of the 'Phoenician' speaking early European colonists can be shown to be Hebrew.

Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that, 'The Tyrians [Phoenicians] conceded to the Israelites a participation in the traffic which they had carried on for so long a time with the nations of the west. Two trading fleets were formed (I Kings 9:27; 10:22), to which each of the two nations contributed both ships and men.' (Phoenicia pp. 101 - 102) From such trading colonies grew and developed early European cities.

LANGUAGE LINK
In the 18th century, historians discovered exciting proof of Phoenician-Celtic ties. An ancient Roman dramatist, Titus Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.) wrote a play, the Penulus in which he placed then current Phoenician into the speech of one of his characters. In the 18th century, linguists noticed the great similarity between that Phoenician and the early Irish Celtic language. Leading 18th and 19th century scholars, such as Gen. Charles Vallancey, Lord Rosse, and Sir William Betham, also wrote on this subject. Vallancey, for instance, speaks of, 'The great affinity found in many words, nay whole lines and sentences of this speech, between the Punic [Phoenician] and the Irish.' Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that this and other inscriptions are 'READILY EXPLICABLE, IF HEBREW BE ASSUMED AS THE KEY TO THEM, BUT NOT OTHERWISE.'(Phoenicia, p. 327).

PHOENICIAN OF PLAUTUS:
Byth lym mo thym nociothii nel ech an ti daisc machon Ys i do iebrim thyfe lyth chy lya chon temlyph ula.
EARLY IRISH-CELTIC:
Beth liom' mo thime nociaithe, niel ach an ti dairie mae coinne Is i de leabhraim tafach leith, chi lis con teampluibh ulla.
In 1772, General Charles Vallancey, a leading Irish scholar of the day, published his famous work, Essay On ‘The Antiquity Of The Irish Language, Being A Collation Of The Irish With The Punic (Hebrew) Language’. In his opening remarks he states, 'On a collation of the Irish with the Celtic, Punic, Phoenician and Hebrew languages, the strongest affinity, (nay a perfect identity in very many Words) will appear, it may therefore be deemed a Punic-Celtic compound.' Vallancey continues, 'from the Hebrew proceeded the Phoenician, from the Phoenician, Carthaginian, or Punic was derived the Aeolian, Dorian and Etruscan and from these was formed the Latin ... Of the Roman Saxon capital letters, the Irish use but three, all the others bear a very great resemblance to the primitive Hebrew and Phoenician.' (p. 2-3) Modern language scholars have confirmed that there is a definite connection between the Celtic and Hebrew, as we have shown in our tract, Hebrew and English.

RELIGIOUS LINK
Since it is true that Hebrews and Phoenicians migrated to Europe in large numbers in ancient times, there must be religious and cultural ties, and in fact, such connections abound. Dr Thomas Moore's, History of Ireland (p. 40), relates:
'That most common of all Celtic monuments, the Cromlech is to be found not only in most parts of Europe, but also in Asia,' including Palestine. 'Not less ancient and general among the Celtic nations, was the circle of upright stones, with either an altar or tall pillar in the centre, and, like its prototype at Gilgal [ancient Israel], serving sometimes as a temple of worship, sometimes as a place of national council or inauguration ... The rough, unhewn stone... used in their circular temples by the Druids, was the true, orthodox observance of the divine command delivered to Noah, 'If thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone'(Ex. 20:25) Dr Beauford, in Druidism Revived says, 'It is remarkable that all the ancient altars found in Ireland, and now distinguished by the name of Cromlechs or sloping stones, were originally called Bothal, or the House of God, and they seem to be of the same species as those mentioned in the Book of Genesis, called by the Hebrews, Bethel, which has the same signification as the Irish Bothal' The Bible (Judges. 9:6; 2 Ki. 1 1: 1 4; 2 Chronicles. 23:13) indicates that Hebrew kings were crowned either standing upon or next to a pillar of stone. 'The practice of seating the new king upon a stone, at his initiation, was the practice in many of the countries of Europe ... The monarchs of Sweden sat upon a stone placed in the centre of twelve lesser ones, and in a similar kind of circle the Kings of Denmark were crowned.'(Moore, ibid., p. 42) Note also the significant Bible number, 'twelve' which was common to both European Celts and the Hebrews.
The book, ‘Identity of the Religious Druidical and Hebrew’, adds, 'Circular temples ... abound in England and other parts of Europe. The most ancient account of them is to be found in the book of Exodus (24.4), "And Moses ... builded an altar under the hill and twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes." (p. 15)'. In Europe, Stonehenge, Avebury, and many other early Celtic sites were designed in a circular pattern. Groves were also features of both Hebrew and Celtic worship. The Bible tells us that Abraham 'called on the everlasting God' (Gen. 13:4) from a grove planted by his own hand. Gideon worshipped God under an oak tree. (Judges. 6:19-24)
The division of time into a seven-day week was practiced by the Irish Celts, identical to the Hebrews. Dr Thomas Moore comments that no other nation kept such a hebdomadal (seven day) cycle 'excepting only among the family of Abraham,' (ibid., p. 54) a remarkable proof of identity between the two peoples!
Since early times, the Israelites sinned against God by adopting many of the pagan practices of their neighbours, and so we find evidence of both Hebrew and Canaanite culture among their descendants in Europe. There are many other examples, however, of customs linking the Celtic Druids specifically with Israel. English historian, William Borlase, in his ‘Antiquities Of Cornwall’ (1754) presented many pages of such evidence: Druids worshipped but one God and allowed no graven images, identical to the Hebrews, and in contradistinction with almost all other ancient religions.
Consecration was by sprinkling with blood, as in the Old Testament Hebrew worship. Druid priests were clothed in white, similar to the Hebrew priest's white ephod; sacrificial victims were bled to death, and the blood was collected in basins which served to sprinkle the altars; bulls were sacrificed, and the image of a bull (the heraldic sign of the Hebrew tribe of Ephraim) was carried into war. 'While they performed their horrid rites of human sacrifice, the drums and trumpets sounded without intermission, that the cries of the miserable victims might not be heard.' (Compare Jeremiah 7:31-32, the Hebrew/Phoenician place of human sacrifice was called Tophet, meaning 'the drum'). They prayed with uplifted, hands, examined entrails for necromancy, and held the oak in veneration. The Druids used the magic wand in imitation of Moses' rod, poured libations, sacrificed upon the tops of rocks, investigated truth by lots, anointed rock pillars with oil, and marked out boundaries with stones. (pp. 104-132, 161) In these and so many other distinctive ways, the religious customs of the Celts and Hebrews bear an unmistakable resemblance!

GEOGRAPHICAL LINK
The early name of south western England was 'Dumnoni', or 'Danmoni', as shown by a portion of a map in Celtic scholar, Sir John Rhys' book, Early Celtic Britain. This comprises today the British counties of Cornwall and Devon. Highly respected historian William Camden remarked concerning Cornwall: 'That region which according to the geographers, is the first of all Britain, and... was in ancient times inhabited by those Britains, whom Solinas called, Dunmonii, Ptolomy (called) Damnonii, or (as we find in some other copies), MORE TRULY DANMONIL WHICH NAME ... DERIVED FROM THE EVER-CONTINUING MINES OF TIN IN THIS TRACT, WHICH THE BRITANS CALL MOINA.'(Britannia p. 183) This compound word is therefore composed of 'moina', a tin mine, and 'Dan', the people who mined the tin. So this most ancient region of England is properly called 'DANMONI', meaning, 'DAN'S TIN-MINES'.

That these early inhabitants known as 'Dan' were in fact the Biblical tribe of the same name has been established by leading modern scholars such as Cyrus Gordo. If these early colonists had actually been Phoenicians, the region would have been called, not Danmoni, but 'Fenimoni,' because the Phoenicians were known as the 'Punic'or 'Feni' civilization.
Celtic scholar, Sir John Rhys, gives strong evidences of Hebrew colonization of the British Isles in ancient times. 'lreland was known as IBERION,' he says. (p. 201) The ancient name of the Israelites was Ibri or Iberi (modern Hebrew), which is derived from the name, 'EBER', or 'HEBER', an ancestor and patriarch of that people. Sir John continues, '...in Ireland it was Ivernii in Ptolomy's time; and he mentions a town there called Ivernis, and a river Ivernios. To these may be added various forms of the name of the island such as Juvenal's luuerna, distorted more usually by the Romans into Hibernia. THEIR EPONYMOUS ANCESTOR ... is variously called EBER, Emer, and HEBER.' (ibid., p. 262-3)
Sir John discusses a region 'just in the vicinity of St David's or Mnyw, called in the Welsh Chronicle MONI IUDEORUM, which contains an allusion probably to the same people.' (ibid., p. 226) Sir John says that some scholars suggest this word, Iudeorurn or Judeorurn, may relate to the 'Jutes', a Germanic tribe in Northern Europe, but that he believes such a view incorrect. Instead, Sir John indicates that it identifies Hebrews of the tribe of Judah. Sir John adds, '... lastly we seem to have a trace of the same form in the Welsh Chronicle, sometimes called Annales Cambriae, when it calls Menevia or St. David's Moni Iudeorum. WE NEED NOT BE HERE TROUBLED BY THE LOST TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL BUT ... IT WOULD BE HARD TO PROVE THE CONTRARY' (ibid. p.150)
Sir John also discusses early Celtic names and suggests that we '... compare Semitic names ... compare the Hebrew.' (ibid., p. 259-260)

HISTORICAL LINK
One last fascinating connection with ancient Israel is suggested by Sir John, who says, 'the (Celtic) Kymry were for some time indifferently called Cambria or Cumbria, the Welsh word on which they are based being, as now written, Cymru ... and is there pronounced nearly as an Englishman would treat it if spelled Kumry or KUMRI.' (p. 142) As students of Old Testament history well know, 'Kumri' or'Khumri' was the name of the Israelites in Assyrian texts. (see, 'The March of Archaeology, by C.W Ceram, p. 216) The virtual identity in spelling and sound between the Israelite 'Khumri', and the Celtic 'Kymry', is too much of a coincidence to not have a relationship. Taken with the rnany other evidences, religious and cultural, the connection between the ancient Hebrews and Celts is too strong to be ignored.
In fact, it is no longer a question of, 'Did Hebrews settle in Europe in ancient times?' but only a question of, 'How many of the people of Europe are of Hebrew descent?' When considering the great numbers of early Israelites (see our tract, The Real Diaspora), and the Biblical promise of multitudinous seed (Genesis 26:4, 32:12; Exodus 32:13; Jeremiah 33:22, etc.), it is evident that the Hebrew-Celtic connection is very significant.
Irish history records three main waves of colonization to that isle in ancient times: the Firbolgs, of whom little is known, the Tuatha de Danaan (meaning 'Tribe of Dan', tuath means 'tribe'), and the Milesians. The latter two peoples are known to have originated in Asia and may have been related. The Story of Ireland by A.M. Sullivan, tells us this: 'The Milesian colony ... were an Eastern people... they had passed from land to land, from the shores of Asia across the wide expanse of southern Europe, bearing aloft through all their wanderings the Sacred Banner which symbolized to them at once their origin and their mission, the blessing and the promise given to their race. This celebrated standard, the "Sacred Banner of the Milesians," was a flag on which was represented a dead serpent and the rod of Moses...' (p. 12) The Milesians traced their ancestry to 'Gadelius', whose grandfather was 'the king of Scythia' (p.13) Interestingly, Gad was a son of the patriarch Jacob, and his descendants formed one of the tribes of Israel.

As if this wasn't enough coincidence, the serpent symbol was a family heraldic emblem of the Israelite tribe of Dan (Gen. 49:17), whose descendants have been traced by leading modern American archaeologist Cyrus Gordon, to the Tuatha de Danaan of early Ireland! (see Before Columbus, pp. 108-111)

SUMMARY
Therefore we can say that in all of these (and a multitude of other) ways, the Celts and Hebrews bear a remarkable relationship. Since the Celts were spread over most of Europe, the cultural, historical, and theological implications of this truth are immensely significant.